Digital Marketing

Rapid Changes in Marketing

It probably wouldn’t surprise you to know the online world is growing rapidly, digital marketing is very much the way of the present. With 86% of Australians connected to the internet at home, it’s not hard to wonder why it has become a big part of our lives (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018). Digital marketing is marketing processes that are done digitally. Marketing is a broad term that encompasses almost all business operations from advertising to the selling and buying of products and services (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019; Fierro, Arbelaez & Gavilanez, 2019). Let me give you an example; you decide you’d like to purchase a phone so you go online and begin by searching phones into Google. The results are ads from stores close to you and online stores with lots of phones to choose from – so what do you do now? You might go to YouTube for independent reviews of the phones you’re interested in. All these steps are considered digital marketing. How are you reading this page right now? The obvious answer is on the internet, but more specifically you are likely to be viewing this on a desktop, laptop or smartphone (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018). This again is an example of digital marketing similar to cites like Wikipedia, where your online ‘views’ are exchanged for information (Shultz 2017). 

“86% of Australians are connected to the internet at home”

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018)

So what are the most common things Australian’s do on the web? 80% of people use the internet for entertainment, social networking and banking, followed by 72% of people purchasing goods or services (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018). You may be wondering if this means that only 72% of people using the internet are involved in digital marketing. That is definitely not the case, most social media cites are laced with advertising content – it’s hard to escape it! 

It may seem that digital marketing is a burden of unavoidable content for the consumers. While it can feel like this sometimes try and imagine not being able to book things online or view/review items, it would make life pretty difficult!

The Evolution of eBay

eBay is currently the leader of online marketplace platforms with a revenue of $2.7 billion dollars in April, May and June of this year (eBay Impact 2018 Progress Update 2018). While eBay is a worldwide known brand – you may have asked yourself where did they come from? When eBay first got launched into the digital world in 1995 it was known as AuctionWeb and had no traffic in the first day (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwic 2019; eBay 2019). Hard to believe right! In 1997 the name was changed to eBay and 2 decades later with millions of buyers eBay is the leader in online marketplaces (eBay 2019). You’re probably wondering how this business skyrocketed to the top. The key to marketing success is to understand the market and the consumers and tailor the experience towards these groups and individuals (Fierro, Arbelaez & Gavilanez 2019). 

(Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019; Smart Insights 2018)

In 1999 eBay expanded globally, launching cites in Germany, Australia and the UK (eBay 2019). This helped eBay reach more customers which is a crucial step, as seen in the diagram above, to growing the customer base (Kannan & Li 2017). 

Another key step to the development of eBay was the introduction of the ‘Feedback Forum’ in 1997 where members could rate their transaction to build the integrity of the eBay brand (eBay 2019). Trustworthiness is extremely important as eBay was not very well known and the ability for customers to give feedback creates a social influence on other customers to purchase (Fierro, Arbelaez & Gavilanez 2019).

So now eBay has a wide demographic of potential customers, integrity and brand awareness. What’s next? Another key marketing strategy was introducing the ‘buy it now’ option making shopping more interactive and instantly gratifying (eBay 2019). eBay has continuously listened to what the consumers want and followed closely on digital trends in society including the smartphones and tablets.

“In Australia a car part is purchased every 4 seconds on eBay.”

(eBay Fast Facts 2019)
Pierre Omidyar (the founder of eBay) talks about the innovation used to market eBay.

The company’s mission is “to be the world’s favourite destination for great value and unique selection” (eBay Impact 2018 Progress Update 2018). Due to their marketing approach it is quite clear why they are the leading marketplace on the web!


Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Household Use of Information Technology. [online] Available at: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/ACC2D18CC958BC7BCA2568A9001393AE?Opendocument [Accessed 11 Aug. 2019]. 

Chaffey, D. and Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital marketing. 7th ed. Harlow: Pearson. 

eBay Fast Facts. (2019). [pdf] Available at: https://static.ebayinc.com/assets/Uploads/PressRoom/eBay-Q22019-FastFacts.pdf [Accessed 13 Aug. 2019]. 

eBay Impact 2018 Progress Update. (2018). [pdf] Available at: https://static.ebayinc.com/assets/Uploads/Documents/eBay-Impact-2018-Progress-Update.pdf [Accessed 13 Aug. 2019]. 

eBay. (2019). Our History. [online] Available at: https://www.ebayinc.com/company/our-history/ [Accessed 14 Aug. 2019]. 

Fierro, I., Arbelaez, D. and Gavilanez, J. (2019). Digital Marketing: a New Tool for International Education. [online] Available at: https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/docview/1984527647?rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo [Accessed 12 Aug. 2019]. 

Kannan, P. and Li, H. (2017). Digital marketing: A framework, review and research agenda. International Journal of Research in Marketing, [online] 34(1), pp.22-45. Available at: https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0167811616301550 [Accessed 13 Aug. 2019]. 

Shultz, C. (2017). Marketing: The Next 40000 Years. Journal of Macromarketing, [online] 37(3), pp.328-330. Available at: https://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/doi/full/10.1177/0276146717712360 [Accessed 11 Aug. 2019]. 

Smart Insights. (2018). How to structure a product launch campaign | Smart Insights. [online] Available at: https://www.smartinsights.com/traffic-building-strategy/campaign-planning/structure-product-launch-campaign/ [Accessed 13 Aug. 2019]. 

Entertainment and Sporting Digital Marketing Mix

Impact of the Internet on Entertainment Industry – Marketing Mix

The Entertainment industry includes a wide range of activities such as movies, TV, games, gambling and music (Blais, Craig, Pepler & Connolly 2008; Safrath 2011). The table below shows that using the internet for entertainment purposes has increased by a massive 20% from 2015 to 2017 in Australia and is one of the most popular uses of the internet (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2018). 


The internet and technological advances have changed the very nature of entertainment products and services. One big shift has been from watching movies in a cinema and listening to live music to watching shows and movies on Netflix and listening to music on Spotify. Games are another thing that has been completely changed, while bored games and card games have a unique value the adoption of online gaming such as Xbox and PlayStation have boomed. This reflects the needs and want from the eyes of the modern day customers (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019). Wii sports is a game that has adapted elements for physical games such as bowling and tennis.


One way that promotion has significantly increased with the adoption of technology is P2P networking (aka Peer to Peer) which is the ability for someone to share digital information over the internet (Rupp & Smith 2004). This is an important version of “word of mouth” promotion. It is also much easier to segment different target groups and focus advertising strategies to be more customised (Nezamabad 2011). 


With the average cost of a movie ticket at roughly $15.50 and the average cost of Netflix for a whole MONTH is $14 it’s not hard to wonder why people are going online (Dendy 2019; Netflix 2019). Online services make it possible to reduce costs, they don’t need to spend money on a physical space – this also means there is no maximum capacity for consumers. They also are able to reduce upkeep costs such as electricity, cleaning and staffing per customer. In addition, many services such as Netflix and Spotify offer a deal of not having to pay for the first month this is a very good tactic to persuade people to try out the product or service (Netflix 2019).


A wonderful thing about the impact of digital technology and the internet is that it can be accessed from anywhere! So, no need to hide all those snacks in your bag… People seem to enjoy being able engage with entertainment services in a more mobile way. For example, you are on the bus with your headphones listening to Taylor Swifts new album on your phone. Or you are waiting for class or perhaps on break from work and you can play a quick game of Angry Birds – how convenient!


Overall less manpower is needed to manage customers online for example most questions asked by consumers are answered in the frequently asked question section on the websites. A good thing about the way customers are handle is that the correct information is being conveyed in a unified way. 


One thing made possible by the internet and technology in the entertainment industry is that the product or service can be accessed almost immediately, this gives customers instant gratification. Another important positive of the online process is that these sites are designed to be able to customise suggestions or recommendations based on location and previously viewed content. 

Physical Evidence 

Most online entertainment sites have a larger variety of things to watch, listen or play with as appose to old school entertainment options – for example there are limited movies to watch at the cinema. This growth in digital context is attributed largely to advances in IT (Nezamabad 2011). A downside of this shift towards digital entertainment could be that it doesn’t involve any human interactions making the experience less enjoyable. However, these entertainment sites can classify, recommend and group movies or songs together which adds to the online experience.  

Suggested Social Media Tactics for Online Sports Equipment

  • Build your Brand

It is very important to build a distinct brand and build that brand connection with customers – this will impact how well advertising will go (Weiger, Hammerschmidt & Wetzel 2018). In addition because online products are so available it is important to have a distinct brand so that consumers can both develop loyalty and also trust in that brand (Baltes 2016).

(Pike 2017)
  • Gain Traffic

An important social media tactic for an online store that is just starting out is to gain reach to potential customers. This will mean trying to target the right group. For fitness material a good social media site to use might be Instagram as this has a lot of health conscious content, in addition the use of hashtags may help in generating traffic after initial sales have taken place. It is important to follow online trends and market in a way that reflects social media content (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019).

Partnership with an Influencer

This is important as without any attraction to your site no matter how good the products are there are no customers in your store. This is relying on the ‘Law of the Few’ which suggests that the adoption of a product or service is reliant on word of mouth from influential people (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019).  An good point of contact may be inspirational fitness icons, celebrities or models.

Use Promotions!

A social media promotion may include competitions or prize giveaways that involve potential consumers sharing or posting some content that relates to the business – this will have 2 effects both build excitement, good brand reputation and also be a good source of reaching new potential consumers by spreading the message.


Abs.gov.au. (2018). Australian Bureau of Statistics. [online] Available at: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8146.0 [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Baltes, L. (2016). Digital marketing mix specific to the IT Field. Economic Sciences, 9(1).

Blais, J., Craig, W., Pepler, D. and Connolly, J. (2007). Adolescents Online: The Importance of Internet Activity Choices to Salient Relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, [online] 37(5), pp.522-536. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-007-9262-7.

Chaffey, D. and Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital marketing. New York: Pearson Education Limited.

Dendy. (2019). Tickets. [online] Available at: https://www.dendy.com.au/tickets/?c=0001&s=90179 [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Netflix. (2019). Netflix. [online] Available at: https://www.netflix.com/browse [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Nezamabad, M. (2011). The Impact and Benefits of Internet on Marketing Mix. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, [online] 5(9). Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/03a1/1ad9bf37e94a43e8d64411e769eda33e04bf.pdf?_ga=2.183046565.2079334858.1568283745-1821388057.1568283745 [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Pike, M. (2017). Online gallery captures the VERY dubious knock-offs of big brands. [online] Mail Online. Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-5108335/Funny-pictures-knock-products-big-brands.html [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Rupp, W. and Smith, A. (2004). Exploring the impacts of P2P networks on the entertainment industry. Information Management & Computer Security, [online] 12(1), pp.102-116. Available at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/09685220410518865/full/html.

Safrath, B. (2011). How Improvements in Technology Have Affected the Entertainment Industry, [online] 26. Available at: https://www.tourolaw.edu/Academics/uploads/pdfs/Safrath_WritersStrike_JL_Final.pdf [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Waldon, R. (2018). The flight of the influencer… nothing to declare?  Influencer marketing. [online] Richmond Towers Communications. Available at: https://rtc.london/the-flight-of-the-influencer-nothing-to-declare/ [Accessed 12 Sep. 2019].

Weiger, W., Hammerschmidt, M. and Wetzel, H. (2018). Don’t You Dare Push Me: How Persuasive Social Media Tactics Shape Customer Engagement. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, [online] 3(3), pp.364-378. Available at: http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=92ed9c44-3784-4a29-abb3-07f4b40ea5e7%40pdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=#AN=131394263&db=bsu.

Google Innovation and Business Model

Superior Innovation

Innovation is wildly important in the business world; it is the essence of understanding customer needs and wants and being able to serve them effectively and efficiently (Rajapathirana & Hui 2018). Innovation is the ability to adapt to a dynamic and ever-changing market, which leads to increased competitiveness and generally increased profitability as well (Gloet & Samson 2013; Rajapathirana & Hui 2018).  

Just consider where we would be without innovation; no TV, radio, microwave, oven – we would still be in the caveman times! 

A great business example of superior innovation is Google. When you hear the name Google you may automatically think of the search engine and you may wonder what makes Google so special… Google now offers a range of digital services, products and advertising opportunities as seen in the table below (Google Store 2019).  

Digital ServicesProducts
Google Search Engine
Google Scholar  
Google Play 
Google Drive 
Google Photos
Google Maps
Google Home 
Mobile Phones 
Google Nest
OS Google (watch)
Google Chromecast

Innovation is about considering current problems of a product or service. Safety, privacy and well-being are all current issues facing the developments of digital technology and services. Let’s explore these further.

Safety and Privacy 

A current issue is the use of personal information gathered by sites. For example, Facebook was recently under fire for not protecting user’s data and not having an opt in consent to using bio-metric facial data among other personal information (Singer 2018). Google is currently working to creating a safer space by more assertively blocking the use of fingerprinting and giving users more information about the use of cookies (Schuh 2019). 

Products are also being created that improve safety not only online but, in the home, such as the Google Nest – a device that alerts user to intruders in the home via cameras, microphones and activity sensors (Nest & Google 2019).


Another increasing concern of consumers is the psychological and physical side effects of over consumption of digital products such as a decrease in well-being.  Google now offers a setting that can track your digital well-being and also view other devices such as children’s devices (Google Support 2019). This is very important to consumers as over use of digital devices has been linked to many negative health consequences such as back problems, depression, poor eye sight and stress (Zheng & Lee 2016). 

A video that Google posted about Digital well-being.

Business and Revenue Model

A business model involves looking at what creates revenue for a company, where that revenue comes from and strategies related to business operation (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019).  Google made over 25, 682 million dollars in Q1 2019 alone (this includes January, February and March) (Alphabet First Quarter 2019 Results 2019). You may be wondering where this money comes from, the number ONE money maker is from advertising through Google (Alphabet First Quarter 2019 Results 2019). Advertising on Google is typically from paid clicks and cost per click. The second most profitable endeavour is Google properties or products (Alphabet First Quarter 2019 Results 2019).

A revenue model is more specifically to understand the methods for organisations to create profit (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). This might involve increasing the value of a product or service in the eyes of consumers. For example, Google is constantly trying to create practical and helpful products and services to make the consumers life easier. A great product example of this is Google Home, a device that can do various things for the user by voice commands. Google’s performance can be traced back to their superior innovation and the though they put into their business and revenue models.


Alphabet First Quarter 2019 Results. (2019). [ebook] Available at: https://abc.xyz/investor/static/pdf/2019Q1_alphabet_earnings_release.pdf [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Chaffey, D. and Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital marketing. Harlow: Pearson. 

Facebook Q1 2019 Results. (2019). [ebook] Available at: https://s21.q4cdn.com/399680738/files/doc_financials/2019/Q1/Q1-2019-Earnings-Presentation.pdf [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Gloet, M. and Samson, D. (2013). Knowledge Management to Support Systematic Innovation Capability. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, [online] (46), pp.3685-3694. Available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6480290 [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Google Store. (2019). Google Store. [online] Available at: https://store.google.com/ [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Rajapathirana, R. and Hui, Y. (2018). Relationship between innovation capability, innovation type, and firm performance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, [online] 3(1), pp.44-55. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2444569X17300409 [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Schuh, J. (2019). Building a more private web. [online] Google. Available at: https://blog.google/products/chrome/building-a-more-private-web/ [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019].  

Singer, N. (2018). What You Don’t Know About How Facebook Uses Your Data. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/11/technology/facebook-privacy-hearings.html [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Sok, P. and O’Cass, A. (2011). Achieving superior innovation-based performance outcomes in SMEs through innovation resource–capability complementarity. Industrial Marketing Management, [online] 40(8), pp.1285-1293. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019850111001581 [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Store.google.com. (2019). Nest & Google – The best of Google. The best of Nest.. [online] Available at: https://store.google.com/category/google_nest [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Support.google.com. (2019). Manage how you spend time on your Android phone with Digital Wellbeing – Android Help. [online] Available at: https://support.google.com/android/answer/9346420?p=wellbeing_site&visit_id=637032405481170140-2751896600&rd=1 [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Zheng, X. and Lee, M. (2016). Excessive use of mobile social networking sites: Negative consequences on individuals. Computers in Human Behavior, [online] 65, pp.65-76. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216305751 [Accessed 5 Sep. 2019]. 

Social Media: Do Celebrities Call all the Shots?

Social media is a complex online ecosystem that features many different groups. The main 3 groups are organisations, influences and consumers. The mind-boggling fact is that no matter what your logging on for you will end up consuming media in many different ways!

So how can we better understand the strategic way to use social media for marketing? Felix and colleagues (2016) identified 4 broad features of strategic social media marketing known as the Social Media Marketing Framework (SMMF). The 4 dimensions are:

  • Scope
  • Culture
  • Structure
  • Governance

Scope refers to how social media is used for communication whether that be one-way to convey information or as a collaborative and interactive medium. The culture dimension refers how permeable social media is to marketing and advertising. The 3rd point is structure which focuses on how clear cut the roles of each employee is in regards to social media marketing. The last point is governance, which refers to the guidelines in place for marketing activities.

Kylie Jenner’s Cosmetics

Kylie Jenner has created a massive $400 million dollar business that is still growing thanks to the help of social media (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019). In terms of scope; while most of her social media context is one-way there are certain interactive aspects about the cosmetic brand such as the use of the #KylieCosmetics. Some make-up artists even get featured on her kyliecosmetics Instagram account:

Another interactive aspect is the ability for customers to discuss amongst each other in comments etc. Which helps endorse the product to other people (Omar 2014).

Culture is a little more difficult to understand but let’s put it this way – how many other advertisements get 4 million ‘likes’? Kylie is in the best position possible as people ENJOY her promotional content! While with a lot of other online advertisement the consumer is likely to suffer from banner blindness or the avoiding ads (Hervet et al. 2010).

“This flexibility allows us to remain culturally relevant and at the forefront of new trends”

Laura Nelson – President of Seed Beauty (Schiffer 2018)

The last 2 factors; structure and governance are more difficult to observe from the outside. Laura Nelson – president of the company behind Kylie Cosmetics has indicated that “The flexibility (of social media) allows us to remain culturally relevant and at the forefront of new trends” (Schiffer 2018).

Financial Service Industry & Social Media

Banks and other financial services were the stragglers to jump on the social media marketing train, due to perceived risk (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019). Using the model presented by Felix and colleagues (2016), we can see that the financial service industry originally took a conservatism approach that is focused on risk aversion. The goal for a business with this position is to create a more authentic culture to produce better interaction with social media users. This will in turn make the financial business easier to access, more transparent and customised for each individual.


Felix, R., Rauschnabel, P. and Hinsch, C. (2017). Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework. Journal of Business Research, [online] 70, pp.118-126. Available at: https://fardapaper.ir/mohavaha/uploads/2017/10/Elements-of-strategic-social-media-marketing.pdf [Accessed 25 Aug. 2019].

Hervet, G., Guérard, K., Tremblay, S. and Chtourou, M. (2010). Is banner blindness genuine? Eye tracking internet text advertising. Applied Cognitive Psychology, [online] 25(5), pp.708-716. Available at: https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/doi/full/10.1002/acp.1742 [Accessed 25 Aug. 2019].

Hirsch, J. (2017). Motivators and barriers to internal, social media-based open innovation communities in financial services. [online] Available at: https://researchoutput.csu.edu.au/ws/portalfiles/portal/10210352/DBA_thesis_Juergen_Hirsch_final_2017_05_24.pdf [Accessed 25 Aug. 2019].

Omar, J. (2014). Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context. School of Business and Law. [online] Available at: https://uia.brage.unit.no/uia-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2349737/BE-501%202014%20spring%20Master%27s%20thesis%20Juwayria%20Omar.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [Accessed 25 Aug. 2019].

Schiffer, J. (2018). The Secret Company Behind KKW Beauty and Kylie Cosmetics. [online] InStyle. Available at: https://www.instyle.com/news/secret-company-behind-kkw-beauty-and-kylie-cosmetics [Accessed 25 Aug. 2019].

Understanding Online Customer Experience

As someone who doesn’t own a car and gets around on a bike it can be difficult to shop in stores especially for larger items that are hard to carry. This makes me quite an experienced online shopper. For example, when I am doing a large grocery shop, I often decide to purchase online and get it delivered to save time and make life a bit easier!  

 So, what makes people online shoppers? Why do they stick to one website? And how do businesses develop long-term customers? 

The framework (pictured above) for understanding online customer experience involves antecedents or how the individual thinks, feels and interacts with the website/brand, the customers experience with shopping and the outcomes or consequences of the purchase (Rose & Hair 2011 as cited in Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick 2019). Using myself as an example in the case of online grocery shopping, I evaluate the delivery service as very useful and much easier that riding a bike with a heavy bag of groceries! Another important deciding factor for me is the cost, for delivery it is maximum cost of $10, for me I believe this is worth it as it saves me a lot of time and effort. At first online grocery shopping seemed to be difficult to use as the product that you are after may not appear at the top of the search results, especially if you have a favourite type of cereal etc. However, after shopping a number of times or linking your rewards card it saves all the items you have bought so you can scroll through and easily select your go-to foods, this builds customer loyalty and makes the shopping experiences much more personalised.  

While grocery foods are a necessary purchase, things like clothing can be more just for fun. I am an occasional online clothing shopper from stores like ‘The Iconic’ and ‘Boohoo’. The major difference is that my perceived usefulness and benefits of clothing is a lot lower than that of grocery items – who really needs more clothes? However, the enjoyment and excitement are much higher and purchases are generally quite satisfying. Because I don’t NEED more clothes but I enjoy buying clothes I am a less frequent online customer to clothing retailers than I am to online grocery stores.  Consider the things you purchase frequently vs occasionally – how do you perceive these products differently? 

A very important factor in online shopping is the use of personalization and promotions. Almost all online stores try to personalise customer experience, this is much easier online as it is often an automated system. For example, the use of your name to emails sent to you and ‘personalised picks’ from the website, this encourages repeat purchasing. 

The use of promotions is another tool used to attract customers to make another purchase. For example, grocery stores often send emails 2 weeks after you have made a purchase as this is usually when you are running low on food. With fashion websites emails are sent more frequently with increasingly good deals to try and get you to succumb to the temptation of impulse buying. 

Thanks for reading! Don’t forget to have your say in the comments below 🙂